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Refining Anger: Summarizing the Self-Report Measurement of Anger

Maltby, John; Norton, Will H. J.; McElroy, Eoin; Cromby, John; Halliwell, Martin; Hall, Sophie S.

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John Maltby

Will H. J. Norton

Eoin McElroy

John Cromby

Martin Halliwell

Clinical Trial Manager


The current paper presents a five-factor measurement model of anger summarizing scores on public-domain self-report measures of anger. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of self-report measures of anger (UK, n = 500; USA, n = 625) suggest five replicable latent anger factors: anger-arousal, anger-rumination, frustration-discomfort, anger-regulation, and socially constituted anger. Findings suggested a 5-factor interpretation provided the best fit of the data. We also report evidence of measurement invariance for this 5-factor model of anger across gender, age, and ethnicity. The findings suggest a useful and parsimonious account of anger, summarizing over 50 years of research around the self-report measurement of anger.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 2, 2022
Online Publication Date Dec 8, 2022
Publication Date Dec 8, 2022
Deposit Date Dec 16, 2022
Publicly Available Date Dec 16, 2022
Journal Journal of Personality Assessment
Print ISSN 0022-3891
Electronic ISSN 1532-7752
Publisher Informa UK Limited
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous); Clinical Psychology; Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
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