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Retrofit Yield Spectra–a practical device in seismic rehabilitation

Thermou, Georgia; Elnashai, Amr; Pantazopoulou, Stavroula


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Assistant Professor in Structural Engineering

Amr Elnashai

Stavroula Pantazopoulou


The Retrofit Yield Spectrum (RYS) is a new spectrum-based device that relates seismic demand of a retrofitted structure with the fundamental design parameters of the retrofit. This is obtained from superposition of Yield Point Spectra with design charts that summarize in pertinent spectrum-compatible coordinates the attributes of a number of alternative retrofit scenarios. Therefore, once the requirements for upgrading a given structure have been determined, the RYS enable direct insight of the sensitivity of the seismic response of the upgraded structure to the preliminary design decisions made while establishing the retrofit plan. By virtue of their spectrum-based origin, RYS are derived with reference to a single mode of structural vibration; a primary objective is to control the contribution of this mode in the retrofit design so as to produce a desirable distribution of damage at the ultimate limit state by removing soft storey formations and engaging the maximum number of structural members in deformation, in response to the input motion. Calculations are performed with reference to the yield-point, where secant stiffness is proportional to the flexural strength of reinforced concrete members. Derivation and use of the Retrofit Yield Spectra (RYS) refers to the seismic demand expressed either in terms of spectral acceleration, spectral displacement or interstory drift, at yield of the first storey. A reinforced concrete building that has been tested in full scale to a sequence of simulated earthquake excitations is used in the paper as a demonstration case study to examine the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.


Thermou, G., Elnashai, A., & Pantazopoulou, S. (2012). Retrofit Yield Spectra–a practical device in seismic rehabilitation. Earthquakes and Structures, 3(2), 141-168.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 3, 2011
Online Publication Date Apr 25, 2012
Publication Date Apr 1, 2012
Deposit Date Dec 4, 2018
Print ISSN 2092-7614
Publisher Techno-Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 3
Issue 2
Pages 141-168
Public URL