Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Tilt and azimuth angles in solar energy applications – A review

Hafez, A.Z.; Soliman, A.; El-Metwally, K.A.; Ismail, I.M.


A.Z. Hafez

A. Soliman

K.A. El-Metwally

I.M. Ismail


This paper presents a review of tilt angle and azimuth angles in solar energy applications. The paper involves an overview of design parameter, applications, simulations and mathematical techniques covering different usage application. The number of references analysing the tilt angle deployment in the context of the research papers of the different countries currently having operations in solar systems is much more significant. Different kinds of models and test methods of optimum tilt angle in different solar systems have been developed since 1956 which can be distinguished by their particular mathematical models or tracking techniques as shown in the latest researches. The mathematical models allows the calculation of different parameters of the solar radiation, the angle of inclination, and the optimum tilt angle of the collecting surface and the effects acting on the system.


Hafez, A., Soliman, A., El-Metwally, K., & Ismail, I. (2017). Tilt and azimuth angles in solar energy applications – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 77, 147-168.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 29, 2017
Online Publication Date Apr 10, 2017
Publication Date 2017-09
Deposit Date Dec 4, 2018
Journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Print ISSN 1364-0321
Electronic ISSN 1879-0690
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 77
Pages 147-168
Keywords Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Tilt and azimuth angles in solar energy applications – A review; Journal Title: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Downloadable Citations