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Basal Plane Delamination Energy Measurement in a Ti3SiC2 MAX Phase

Gavalda-Diaz, Oriol; Lyons, Jack; Wang, Siyang; Emmanuel, Max; Marquardt, Katharina; Saiz, Eduardo; Giuliani, Finn

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Oriol Gavalda-Diaz

Jack Lyons

Siyang Wang

Max Emmanuel

Katharina Marquardt

Eduardo Saiz

Finn Giuliani


The {0001} basal plane delamination dominating the crack-wake bridging in MAX phases at a bulk scale has been investigated by studying the small-scale fracture of a Ti3SiC2. In situ micro-double cantilever beam (DCB) tests in a scanning electron microscope were used to grow a stable crack along the basal plane, measure the fracture energy, and study the crack propagation mechanism at the nanoscale. The results show that the fracture energy (10–50 J/m2) depends on small misorientations angles (e.g., 5°) of the basal plane to the stress field. This induces permanent deformation which can be observed once the DCB has been unloaded. The nanoscale study of the crack shows that the plasticity at the crack tip is small, but a number of pairs of dislocations are forming at each side of the crack. Hence, this study helps to explain the enhanced fracture energy values and possible sources of energy dissipation in basal plane delamination, which is the one of the main toughening mechanisms in the bulk fracture of MAX phases.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 17, 2021
Online Publication Date Apr 26, 2021
Publication Date 2021-06
Deposit Date Nov 7, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 7, 2022
Journal JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society
Print ISSN 1047-4838
Electronic ISSN 1543-1851
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 73
Issue 6
Pages 1582–1588
Public URL
Publisher URL


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