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Psychotic Like Experiences in Healthy Adolescents are Underpinned by Lower Fronto-Temporal Cortical Gyrification: a Study from the IMAGEN Consortium

Maitra, Raka; Horne, Charlotte M; O’Daly, Owen; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Gaser, Christian; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Grigis, Antoine; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Brühl, Rüdiger; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Lemaitre, Herve; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Hohmann, Sarah; Millenet, Sabina; Fröhner, Juliane H; Robinson, Lauren; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Winterer, Jeanne M; Whelan, Robert; Burke Quinlan, Erin; Ing, Alex; Schumann, Gunter; Shergill, Sukhi; IMAGEN Consortium


Raka Maitra

Charlotte M Horne

Owen O’Daly

Evangelos Papanastasiou

Christian Gaser

Tobias Banaschewski

Gareth J Barker

Arun L W Bokde

Sylvane Desrivières

Herta Flor

Antoine Grigis

Hugh Garavan

Andreas Heinz

Rüdiger Brühl

Jean-Luc Martinot

Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot

Eric Artiges

Frauke Nees

Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos

Herve Lemaitre

Tomáš Paus

Luise Poustka

Sarah Hohmann

Sabina Millenet

Juliane H Fröhner

Lauren Robinson

Michael N Smolka

Henrik Walter

Jeanne M Winterer

Robert Whelan

Erin Burke Quinlan

Alex Ing

Gunter Schumann

Sukhi Shergill

IMAGEN Consortium


Background and Hypothesis
Psychotic Like Experiences (PLEs) are widely prevalent in children and adolescents and increase the risk of developing psychosis. Cortical gyrification characterizes brain development from in utero till about the first 2 years of life and can be measured in later years as static gyrification changes demonstrating neurodevelopment and dynamic gyrification changes reflecting brain maturation during adolescence. We hypothesized that PLEs would be associated with static cortical gyrification changes reflecting a neurodevelopmental abnormality.

Study Design
We studied 1252 adolescents recruited in the IMAGEN consortium. We used a longitudinal study design, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging measurements at age 14 years and age 19 years; measurement of PLEs using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) questionnaire at age 19 years; and clinical diagnoses at age 23 years.

Study Results
Our results show static gyrification changes in adolescents with elevated PLEs on 3 items of the CAPE—voice hearing, unusual experiences of receiving messages, and persecutory ideas—with lower cortical gyrification in fronto-temporal regions in the left hemisphere. This group also demonstrated dynamic gyrification changes with higher cortical gyrification in right parietal cortex in late adolescence; a finding that we replicated in an independent sample of patients with first-episode psychosis. Adolescents with high PLEs were also 5.6 times more likely to transition to psychosis in adulthood by age 23 years.

This is the largest study in adolescents that demonstrates fronto-temporal abnormality of cortical gyrification as a potential biomarker for vulnerability to PLEs and transition to psychosis.


Maitra, R., Horne, C. M., O’Daly, O., Papanastasiou, E., Gaser, C., Banaschewski, T., …IMAGEN Consortium. (2022). Psychotic Like Experiences in Healthy Adolescents are Underpinned by Lower Fronto-Temporal Cortical Gyrification: a Study from the IMAGEN Consortium. Schizophrenia Bulletin,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 1, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 5, 2022
Publication Date Oct 5, 2022
Deposit Date Feb 4, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 7, 2023
Journal Schizophrenia Bulletin
Print ISSN 0586-7614
Electronic ISSN 1745-1701
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Psychiatry and Mental health
Public URL
Publisher URL


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