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Microfluidic-Based Formulation of Essential Oils-Loaded Chitosan Coated PLGA Particles Enhances Their Bioavailability and Nematocidal Activity

Helal, Mohamed A.; Abdel-Gawad, Ahmed M.; Kandil, Omnia M.; Khalifa, Marwa M.E.; Morrison, Alison A.; Bartley, David J.; Cave, Gareth W.V.; Elsheikha, Hany M.


Mohamed A. Helal

Ahmed M. Abdel-Gawad

Omnia M. Kandil

Marwa M.E. Khalifa

Alison A. Morrison

David J. Bartley

Gareth W.V. Cave


In this study, poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles were synthesized and coated with chitosan. Three essential oil (EO) components (eugenol, linalool, and geraniol) were entrapped inside these PLGA particles by using the continuous flow-focusing microfluidic method and a partially water-miscible solvent mixture (dichloromethane: acetone mixture (1:10)). Encapsulation of EO components in PLGA particles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction, with encapsulation efficiencies 95.14%, 79.68%, and 71.34% and loading capacities 8.88%, 8.38%, and 5.65% in particles entrapped with eugenol, linalool, and geraniol, respectively. The EO components’ dissociation from the loaded particles exhibited an initial burst release in the first 8 h followed by a sustained release phase at significantly slower rates from the coated particles, extending beyond 5 days. The EO components encapsulated in chitosan coated particles up to 5 μg/mL were not cytotoxic to bovine gut cell line (FFKD-1-R) and had no adverse effect on cell growth and membrane integrity compared with free EO components or uncoated particles. Chitosan coated PLGA particles loaded with combined EO components (10 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the motility of the larval stage of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei by 76.9%, and completely inhibited the motility of adult worms (p < 0.05). This nematocidal effect was accompanied by considerable cuticular damage in the treated worms, reflecting a synergistic effect of the combined EO components and an additive effect of chitosan. These results show that encapsulation of EO components, with a potent anthelmintic activity, in chitosan coated PLGA particles improve the bioavailability and efficacy of EO components against ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.


Helal, M. A., Abdel-Gawad, A. M., Kandil, O. M., Khalifa, M. M. E., Khalifa, M. M., Morrison, A. A., …Elsheikha, H. M. (2022). Microfluidic-Based Formulation of Essential Oils-Loaded Chitosan Coated PLGA Particles Enhances Their Bioavailability and Nematocidal Activity. Pharmaceutics, 14(10), Article 2030.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 19, 2022
Online Publication Date Sep 23, 2022
Publication Date Oct 1, 2022
Deposit Date Oct 2, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 3, 2022
Journal Pharmaceutics
Electronic ISSN 1999-4923
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 10
Article Number 2030
Keywords Pharmaceutical Science
Public URL
Publisher URL


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