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Tailored twist morphing achieved using graded bend–twist metamaterials

Gu, Huaiyuan; Taghipour, Javad; Shaw, Alexander D.; Amoozgar, Mohammadreza; Zhang, Jiaying; Wang, Chen; Friswell, Michael I.


Huaiyuan Gu

Javad Taghipour

Alexander D. Shaw

Jiaying Zhang

Chen Wang

Michael I. Friswell


This work develops a morphing concept that utilises a metamaterial as the passive morphing device for helicopter blades. The metamaterials are created with bend–twist coupling, which enable the blade twist under prescribed bending loads. Finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to investigate the influence of the unit cell configurations on the coupling properties of the metamaterials. The numerical models are then validated experimentally through a set of bending tests conducted with additively manufactured prototypes. Finally, the validated model is used to design a graded metamaterial, where the cell aspect ratio gradually changes along the blade span, providing unique bend–twist coupling and allowing for tailored twist to be obtained. The results suggest the graded metamaterials are capable of introducing optimised nonlinear twists to the blade during different flight conditions including both hover and forward flight.


Gu, H., Taghipour, J., Shaw, A. D., Amoozgar, M., Zhang, J., Wang, C., & Friswell, M. I. (2022). Tailored twist morphing achieved using graded bend–twist metamaterials. Composite Structures, 300, Article 116151.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 13, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 30, 2022
Publication Date Nov 15, 2022
Deposit Date Sep 5, 2022
Publicly Available Date Sep 7, 2022
Journal Composite Structures
Print ISSN 0263-8223
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 300
Article Number 116151
Keywords Civil and Structural Engineering; Ceramics and Composites
Public URL
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